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The Roman Fort of Citera Hill

In the fort of Citera hill with the approximate size of 110 x 90 m was placed a special fighter troop for the open spaces in the low lands. The troop here was made up of Palmyren archers brought from Palmyra (Syria) right from the beginning of the 2nd century A.D. and they continued to stay in Porolissum. Known as Numerus Palmyrenorum Sagittariorum Porolissensium, the unit also had a riding archer squad.

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The Border

The Border – the construction where it was operated the border check of Porolissum – was the first of its kind in the Roman Empire.

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Via Decumana

Road in the internal structure of the fort used to insure the access path towards the commandment building and porta decumana. It was made in stone slabs built on sand and gravel basis. It was limited at the side by channels used in order to discharge the pluvial water.

 

The temple of Nemesis Goddess

Nemesis was the goddess of justice, equity, luck and destiny. She could change the fate of the ones that faced death and danger many times and that is the reason why she was praised mainly by soldiers and gladiators. Read more...

 

Public Building from the Military Vicus

The public building from the military vicus was placed in the neighborhood of Liber Pater temple and later on of Bel. The structure is regarded as a gathering place for the worshippers of the two gods and it was built at the end of the 2nd century, beginning of the 3rd century A.D.

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Moigrad Hill (M?gura Moigradului)

Hill of volcanic origin, a massive mass of rock (andesite, granite etc.) that is still mined today of a quarry on the South-Western side of the hill, Moigrad Hill stands as a magnificent cone with the maximum height of 514 m, and with a level difference of 224 m to the valley of Ortelec, that had created the named pass. The upper plateau of the volcanic cone, in oval shape, has a large diameter of about 400 m and a small one of around 250 m, with a total surface of 7 hectares. Here there were made accidental archaeological discoveries even from 1855 (when it was discovered a Dacian thesaurus in silver ornaments). However the systematic research started in 1940, 1958-1959, but rigorously only from 1984, 1987-1995, 2002. Considered at first a Dacian necropolis of cremation, Moigrad Hill appears increasingly as a sacred space meant for the ritual offerings (1st century B.C.) and then an extended fortified Dacian settlement (1st century A.D.) that was preceded by rare prehistorically occupations and that was later to become a Roman fortification (2nd – 3rd century) and then a medieval settlement (12th – 14th century).

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Via Praetoria

Road in the internal structure of the fort that used to be the link between Porta Praetoria and the commandment building. Built from stone slabs on a sand and gravel foundation, it represents one of the foremost roads of the fort.

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The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Diolichenus and the Tavern

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Trade Buildings

The buildings from the military vicus with the purpose of trade (shops). The trading activities took place in the structure of a dwelling.

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The burial ground (Necropolis)

In the 50’s and then later between 2006 and 2010 there were made archaeological research in the burial ground of the Roman settlement of Porolissum, that is placed at the border of the villages Moigrad and Jac, which unraveled several cremation tombs from 2nd – 3rd century A.D., two funeral stone rooms, a section of the imperial Roman road and part of a medieval burial ground of 12th – 15th century.

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Porta Decumana

This access gate in the fort was set up at the back of the commandment building, and it stands out by two semi-circular towers, that bordered the access to the fort. Read more...

 

The Dwelling

The dwelling used to be part of the civil settlement of the fort (vicus). The structure was built as a stone wall and covered in tiles and had a porticus. The rooms facing the road were trading rooms – shops that had basements below for storing the merchandise.

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The Roman Border (LIMES)

Mese? Mountains are a natural border between the high plateau of Eastern Transylvania and the low lands of Tisa to the West. This mountain chain, of about 80-100 km, used to have several passes from one side to the other, either in the valleys or in the summits. Next to Moigrad one can find the largest and the easiest pass between these two areas, which was used from the ancient times for trading and relocations of troops. The Romans, in their time, blocked the pass with a network of forts that controlled the transit of goods and people. In the main pass and on the lateral, secondary passes, there were made elements of the advanced line of the limes (watch towers, small rooms, and earth and stone dams). Many of the towers on the border of Meses Mountains were ravished by the treasure seekers. There were made archaeological diggings between 1977-1983 to all the towers that were identified in front of Porolissum, and subsequently they were published. The recent research to the dam between Poguior Hill and Dealu Mare identified a burgus on the left shore of the Ortelec Valley, a dam wall long of 2.5 km that was protected with towers, and the pass gate in the wall, between Poguior and Dealu Mare. At 1.5 – 2 km behind this line, there were erected the military settlements, which were the laying places for the troops (the forts). Subsequently, around the fortified garrisons, civil settlements were developed with internal defense. All this show of military tactic forces, in the general strategy framework had as a goal to control the barbarian world (the Dacians, Vandals, Sarmats) and to install the peace in the Province. The strategic importance of the area proved so high that within two decades from the conquest (118-119 A.D.) the Northern and North-Western area of Dacia was changed in a separate province - Dacia Porolissensis with a special type of military structure, and most likely, Porolissum became the capital of this administrative unit. Within this fort, where it is difficult to segregate the defense of the border to the defense of the city or the fort, the fort from Pom?t was the largest and most significant of its kind. It stands as a landmark fort due to its size, outstanding location, the various military units that were settled there, and the extended space for the warehouse together with the production workshops. The name of the place “Pom?t”, is of Southern-Slovenian origin and it means the “remembrance of something in the past”. What is remarkable is that here the Slovenians replaced here the old Latin toponymy, by living around the fort. The Dacian-Roman archaeological fort of Porolissum covers parts of several village borders like: Jac (Creaca), Brebi (Creaca), Moigrad (Mir?id), Ortelec and Stâna, today the suburbs of Zalau city. The fort was in fact on the territory of Jac village, but since the access path towards it and basically towards the Dacian-Roman fort, was made and is still made through Moigrad, as here there were built modern access roads, and all these caused the identification of Porolissum with Moigrad. The distance from Zal?u-Creaca-Jibou to the archaeological fort is about 3.5 km.

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Porta Principalis Sinistra

Access gate in the fort that was located on the left wing and it had two semi-circular towers that bordered the access to the fort. The towers built in stone, used to have ground floor and first floor that rose on top of the turreted internal wall. The two towers had a roof in tiles.

 

Section of the Imperial Road

Section of the imperial road that connected Porolissum, the capital of Dacia Porolissensis de Napoca (Cluj-Napoca), Potaissa (Turda), Apullum (Alba Iulia), Ulpia Traiana Sarmisegetusa, Tibiscum (Caransebe?), Drobeta Turnu Severin and the bridge from Drobeta, to Roma. Built in stone, river gravel or massive stone blocks set on a solid foundation, the Roman road was one of the core elements in the setting of the Roman Empire. Read more...

 

Porta Praetoria

Porta Praetoria – access gate in the fort was on the front side of the commandment building and it used to face towards the area of control for the troops, i.e. towards the border. Read more...

 

Dwelling

The dwelling was part of the civil settlement of the fort (vicus). Built in stone wall and covered in tile roof, the building had a porticus. Read more...

 

Principia

Principia (the commandment building) is the foremost building in the fort. The monument centrally located in the internal structure of the fort had an inner court that was paved with lateral rooms. Read more...

 

The Two Dwellings

The two dwellings, with 4 and 7 rooms, out of which 3 and 5 were heated up by the under floor hot air circulation, are located along the main road of the city POROLISSUM and they belong to a residential neighborhood. Read more...

 

The Water Pool

The water pool – (placed at a height of 490m) – at first just a granary (horreum) – building that was subsequently turned into a tank. Read more...

 

Family Residence Building

The family residence building was made up of 5 rooms out of which 3 are heated with the hypocaustum system (hot air circulating under the floor). Read more...

 

Northern Corner Tower

This was a defensive element in the fort and was located in the Northern corner. The tower is in the shape of an impressive bulwark that marked the corner of the fort, made in trapezoid shape with tile roof. Read more...

 

Porta Principalis Dextra

Access gate in the fort, it was situated on the right side of it. It was made of two bulwarks with semicircular extension that were flanking the simple access in the fort. Made of stone the bulwarks had ground floor and first floor that rose above the internal wall which was turreted. The roof of the two bulwarks had tile roof.

 

Via Principalis

Road in the internal structure of the fort that insured the connection between the two principales gates. It was built in stone slabs laid in a foundation of sand and gravel. Sideways it had channels for pluvial water discharge.